Battery Energy Storage Technology Application
Battery energy storage technologies are essential to speeding up the replacement of fossil fuels with renewable energy. Battery storage systems will play an increasingly pivotal role between green energy supplies and responding to electricity demands.
Lithium-ion battery energy storage technology mainly refers to the storage of electrical energy. The stored energy can be used as emergency energy, and can also be used to store energy when the grid load is low, and supply energy when the grid is under high load for peak shaving and valley filling to reduce grid fluctuations. Lithium-ion batteries refer to accumulators made of lithium-containing compounds, which mainly rely on the movement of lithium ions between the positive and negative electrodes to work. Due to the safety of lithium-ion batteries, most energy storage power stations choose lithium-ion batteries as energy storage batteries.
Lithium-ion batteries are the most common energy storage technology on today’s market, and are widely used in various personal electronic products, mobile devices, and even in-vehicle batteries for electric vehicles. Lithium ion battery is generally divided into energy storage lithium battery and power lithium battery according to the purpose. Energy storage lithium batteries are used in photovoltaic filed or UPS, with relatively large internal resistance and slow charging and discharging speed. Power batteries are generally used in electric vehicles, with small internal resistance and fast charging and discharging speed, the price is about 1.5 times more expensive than the energy storage battery.
Lithium-ion batteries work because of the movement of lithium ions between the positive and negative electrodes. During the process of charging and discharging, there are only lithium ions and no metal lithium. Compared with other batteries, lithium batteries have the advantages of high energy density, long cycle life, low self-discharge rate, high energy conversion rate, and rapid charge and discharge.
However, lithium-ion battery energy storage power stations are generally used in new energy power stations instead of traditional power stations. Due to the unstable voltage and uncertain timing of wind and solar power generation, using energy storage stations as power relays is more conducive to the grid operation.
It is known that the application scenarios of lithium batteries on the power supply side, user side and grid side of energy storage are as follows: energy storage applications on the power generation side include solar energy storage power stations, wind storage power stations, and AGC frequency modulation power stations; user-side energy storage application includes storage and charging stations, household energy storage, backup power supply, etc.; Grid energy storage is mainly based on substation energy storage, virtual power plants, peak shaving/frequency regulation and other scenarios.
So far, to meet the different needs from different fields, people have proposed and developed a variety of energy storage technologies. Lithium-ion battery energy storage is currently the most feasible technical route. From the perspective of the cost of energy storage technology, lithium-ion batteries have strong competitiveness. Sodium-sulfur batteries and vanadium flow batteries have not been industrialized, so the supply channels are limited and the cost is expensive. From the perspective of operation and maintenance costs, sodium-sulfur batteries require continuous heating, vanadium flow batteries require pumps for fluid control, which increases operating costs, while lithium-ion batteries require almost no maintenance.
Energy storage is one of the important means to solve the intermittent volatility of new energy wind power and photovoltaics, and realize the function of peak-shaving and valley-shaving. Lithium-ion storage batteries are becoming more and more popular now. They will perform well in the energy storage market due to their unique advantages.